What is a Psychologist Anyway?

One of the coolest things about my career as a psychologist, is that I often get a chance to talk to reporters and other media folks about psychology and mental health.  I typically get asked questions like “What can people do to reduce their stress?” and “What can parents do to raise psychologically-healthy kids?”  These are great questions and each time I get asked them, I try to come up with interesting, unique, and useful responses.

Today I am preparing for another interview, but this time the question is a little different.  It is: “What is a psychologist anyway?”  I love this question because lots of people ask me, and I know even more people wonder about the answer to this – and related questions.  So here are my answers to questions I often hear about who we psychologists are anyway.

How much schooling do psychologists get? After graduating with a bachelor’s degree from college, the psychologist-to-be (PTB – my term, for simplicity’s sake) applies to a graduate program in psychology.  This process often includes writing essays, going through interviews, taking the GRE, obtaining recommendations, and proving an interest in (and usually experience in) working with people.  Once in the graduate program, our PTB takes lots of classes on psychology, neuroscience, statistics, etc.  The PTB also does clinical work (working with patients under close supervision) in the community and possibly within their school at a counseling center.  After 2-3 years of full time study, our PTB is eligible to earn their master’s degree – which usually means writing a thesis and/or completing super-anxiety-provoking oral and written exams.  Once that hurdle has been jumped over, the PTB can start working on their doctorate – often in the same program/school – and sometimes at a different school.  The doctoral program is similar to the master’s program, but typically involves more research, more advanced clinical work, and intense coursework.  Another 2-4 years are spent in this process until the PTB is ready to apply for their year-long clinical internship.  This is grueling process, as there are many fewer internship slots than candidates.  If our PTB is lucky enough to secure a position (at a medical center, community mental health center, or state hospital for example) they will spend the next 12 months there doing even more intensive clinical work.  After that year is completed (and all other research and academic requirements have been filled) our PTB can graduate with their doctorate (PsyD or PhD)!  Yahoo!  But it’s not over yet!  After graduation, our PTB still has to complete one year of supervised practice and only once that is completed can they sit for the licensing examination.  States vary in exactly what they require for this process, but it often includes a written or multiple choice examination, and an oral examination.  Once all that is done (5-8 years AFTER college) our PTB is officially a psychologist! Finally!

Is a psychologist a real doctor? Yes.  Psychologists really earned a real doctorate.  If by real doctor you mean a medical doctor (someone who went to medical school), then no – we aren’t real doctors by that standard.

Can psychologists prescribe medication? In a few states psychologists can earn prescriptive authority (meaning they can prescribed medication) after more intensive schoolwork, clinical work, and supervision.  Most of us do not prescribe medication, however most of us are happy to refer you to someone who can.

Is the psychologist the same thing as a counselor? No. Some psychologists might call themselves counselors, and some counselors might be psychologists, but the terms are not the same.  The term “counselor,” like “therapist,” is a pretty general term.  Social workers, marriage and family therapists, and other non-licensed folks might call themselves counselors or therapists.  “Psychologist” is a term reserved for people who have undergone the above training and licensing process and represents a much smaller group.

What’s the difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist? Psychologists have PhD’s or PsyD’s (doctorates in the field of psychology) whereas psychiatrists have gone to medical school and completed a specialization in mental health/psychiatry.  In general (meaning – not always), psychologists do psychotherapy (counseling, talk-therapy) and psychiatrists work with their patients on medication management.

Which questions did I miss?